Tuesday, August 28, 2007

How to Talk with Your Child About Sex

It's best to start talking with children about sexuality in early childhood. But it's never too late.

Always be open and available when a child wants to talk.

The most important lesson we can share with our kids is, "Being different is normal."We live in a very sexual world. There are messages about sex all around us — on the Internet, radio, and TV, and in movies, magazines, and music. Sex is used to sell everything from soap to sports cars. Political and religious leaders have a lot to say about sex. So do people in locker rooms, at the mall, and in our own homes. And our kids hear it all.But despite all the talk, our kids don't get much useful information.Many young people become confused and may be pressured into sexual intercourse before they are ready. Too often sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy shape their lives.We want our children to have healthy and rewarding lives. And we all know that teaching them about sex is very important. But for many of us it's hard to talk about sex — especially with our own children.

What Is Sexuality?


All of us are sexual. Our sexuality includes
• our bodies and how our bodies work
• our biological sex
• our gender identity — our feelings about being male or female
• our sexual orientations — straight, gay, or bisexual
• our values about life, love, and the people in our lives And sexuality influences how we feel about all of these things and how we experience the world.<

Why Do Children Need to Know About Sexuality?


Understanding sexuality helps kids cope with their feelings and with peer pressure. They can take charge of their lives and have loving relationships. It also helps protect them from sexual abuse — and from becoming sexual abusers.
Kids learn about sexuality from the day they are born. Home can be the most meaningful place to learn about it. We can help our kids feel good about their sexuality from the very beginning. Then they will be more likely to trust us enough to ask questions about sex later on in life.

Is There Such a Thing as Too Much Information?


No. Information does not encourage kids to be sexually active. Young people make better decisions about sex when they have all the information they need and when there are no taboos on what to talk about at home.

What If I'm Uncomfortable Talking About Sex?


Join the club. Most of us feel that way, and it's not surprising:
• Many of us were taught that sex is too "dirty" to talk about.
• Many of us are afraid that we don't have all the answers.
• It's hard for some of us to admit our children are sexual.
• It's even hard for some of us to admit that we are sexual.
• And many of us fear the normal sexual feelings between our children and us.
But we can be open with them about being uncomfortable about talking about sex. We can start by saying something like, "This is hard for me to talk about. My parents and I never discussed these things. But I want you to have someone to talk with.
"Don't cover up your feelings or avoid the issue. That will make matters worse. Start a conversation, keep it going, and be open from the beginning. Just remember — information about sexuality is as important as food, shelter, and loving care.

When's the Best Time to Start?


It's best to start as soon as children begin getting sexual messages. And they start getting them as soon as they're born. But don't worry if you haven't started yet. It's never too late. Just don't try to "catch up" all at once. The most important thing is to be open and available whenever a child wants to talk.
What Do Kids Want to Know?
What Do They Need to Know?
When Do They Need to Know It?
What kids want most is to know that they're "normal." We can help them understand that it is "normal" for everyone to be different. In fact, the most important lesson we can share with our kids is just that
Being different is normal.
Here's how to help children at different stages of their lives.

Birth to Two


We give babies a sense of themselves from birth. We make them feel secure or insecure by
• the way we hold and touch them
• the way we feed, wash, and diaper them
• the tone of our voices
• letting them feel comfortable with their bodies and emotions
They can develop healthier feelings about their sexuality if we do all these things in a pleasant, loving, and caring way.
All babies explore their bodies. They learn quickly that touching their sex organs feels good. This is a natural and normal part of their development. They should be allowed to enjoy this. If we yell at them or slap their hands, they'll do it anyway — but they'll feel guilty about it. And they won't trust us later in life when they're looking for guidance about sex. It's also important that kids know that bowel movements and urinating are normal and healthy functions.

Three to Five


By the time they are three, kids are ready to know that women and men have different sex organs. Talk about it the same way we talk about elbows and noses, fingers and toes. Always use the right names for sex organs. Say "vulva," "penis," and "breasts," instead of family or street words. Otherwise, kids may get the idea that something is "wrong" with these parts of the body.
Toddlers are often curious about the bodies of their parents and other children. They may play "doctor" to look at each other's sex organs. This is a normal way for kids to find out differences and learn about their sexuality. We can choose to allow it or not. But it won't help to punish children for being normal.
Most kids touch their sex organs for pleasure. Masturbation is very common during this time. We must reassure kids that it is normal to masturbate — but only in private.
Three-year-olds also develop a curiosity about "Where do babies come from?" We don't have to describe sexual intercourse at this point. Answers can be simple for now. We might say something like, "Babies grow in a special place inside the mother." As the years pass, we can add other details as the child becomes able to understand them.
Four-year-olds may become very attached to a parent — even an absent parent. Kids may even be jealous of the other parent or partner. They can become attached to parents or caregivers of both genders. None of these attachments means a child is gay or straight. We should let our kids be comfortable with whatever attachments they form. We should not tease them about having "girlfriends" or "boyfriends."
Four-year-olds may want to snuggle in bed with parents or caregivers. They may also want to see them without clothes on. We should set limits that make our families comfortable. But children should not be punished for such desires.

Five to Seven


Kids usually become less attached to parents and caregivers at this time. They are beginning to realize their own femininity or masculinity. It is very common for them to say they hate children of the opposite gender. We can encourage them to develop their own sense of self of being an individual and we can also teach them to be respectful of others. Again, it's better not to tease them about their feelings.
Kids in primary school may be shy about asking questions. But that doesn't mean they don't havequestions. Most of them have heard about such things as AIDS, rape, and child abuse. So keep talking with them.
Sexual fantasies about family members of both genders are common, too. Kids may find these thoughts upsetting. We must reassure them that just dreaming or thinking about things doesn't make them happen.

Eight to 12


Preteens need all the facts about menstruation, wet dreams, and other signs of puberty and growing up. They need to know that everyone develops at different times.
We need to let pre-teens "fit in" with their peers. But we must also encourage them to think for themselves.
Preteens worry a lot about whether they are "normal." Boys worry about their penis size. Girls worry about their breast size. Reassure them that no two people are the same — that being different is normal.
Kids are fascinated with the way their bodies change. It's common for them to look at and less common for them to touch each other's sex organs. When normal touching occurs it is infrequent. This exploration is one of the ways they may learn that their bodies are normal. They may do this with friends of both genders. This kind of sex play does not make a child gay or straight.
Most preteens are ready to know about sex and reproduction. They want to know about sexual and social relationships. They need to know about sexually transmitted infections, birth control, and the consequences of teen pregnancy. And they need to know how all of this can affect their lives.

13 to 18


Teens must learn how to say "no" and understand what "safer sex" is. "Safer-sex" activities lower the risk of spreading sexually transmitted infections. They should also know about birth control methods. It's important to talk with them about how to have relationships without getting hurt and without hurting other people. And they must know they are responsible for their choices.
Reassure them that their sexuality and feelings are normal. Gay, bisexual, and questioning teens may need even more reassurance.
All teens have to make sexual decisions. Parents and their kids can consider the following list of questions. Parents may want to think about how they would have answered these questions when they were kids.
• Are you embarrassed about being or not being a "virgin"?
• Do you know how to protect yourself against pregnancy and infection?
• Are you being pressured to have sex?
• Will having sex make you feel differently about yourself?
• Is trying to be more popular a good reason for having sex?
• Are you considering having sex to get back at your parents or anyone else?
• Do you know what your sexual limits are?
• Will you be able to let sex partners know your limits?
• Are you emotionally and financially ready to accept the consequences of pregnancy or infection?

Helpful Hints for Parents


• Set good examples that show kids how our lives are enriched by our values.
• Reassure them that they're normal.
• Build their self-esteem — give credit for talents and accomplishments, offer constructive advice, and avoid criticism and punishment.
• Respect our kids' privacy as much as we value our own. Do not pry.
• Use correct names for sex organs and sexual behaviors.
• Take advantage of "teachable moments." A friend's pregnancy, neighborhood gossip, and TV shows can help start a conversation.
• Include topics such as sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and prostitution.
• Be clear about our values and let kids know that others may have different values about sexuality. Teach them that respect for differences is important.
• Don't use scare tactics as a way to stop young people from having sex — it doesn't work.
• Give accurate, honest, short, and simple answers.
• Admit when we don't know an answer. We can help our kids find the answer in a book or other resource.
• Accept questions at face value. For example, "How old do you have to be to 'have sex?'" doesn't necessarily mean, "I'm thinking about having sex."
• Let our kids know that we're available, and make it a habit to share what we think and feel.
• Ask questions even if they don't — questions about what they think and what they know.
• Figure out what we want to say about our own feelings and values before we speak.
• Let our body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice support what we say with words.
• Get to know the world in which our kids live. What pressures are they feeling? What do they consider normal?
Update — Chelsea Nelson, July 2006
Original Version — Susan Newcomer, 1987

© 2007 E-learning for all Blogspot - Tito Prima Wijaya. All rights reserved

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Friday, August 24, 2007

Instalasi Webserver di OpenBSD 4.0

Saya mencoba membuat sedikit tutorial untuk membuat sebuah webserver dengan menggunakan OpenBSD 4.0, Apache 1.3.29, mysql 5.0.22 dan php 5.1.4 yang walaupun isinya saya comot dari sana sini, tapi mudah-mudahan saja bisa bermanfaat khususnya buat saya sendiri sebagai bahan contekan kalau lupa :D.

Secara default setelah kita berhasil melakukan instalasi OpenBSD 4.0 maka Apache pun sudah terinstall juga yang versinya 1.3.29 tapi masih koma alias belum running dan untuk menjalankannya hanya tinggal tulis perinta $apachectl start. Dan apabila instalasi OpenBSD tidak ada kekacauan maka ketika kita krtik http://localhost akan muncul tampilan pemberutahuan bahwa kita sudah sukses mengintal Apache.

Setelah Apache tidak bermasalah, maka selanjutnya kita perlu menginstall yang namanya mysql caranya :

Apabila package mysql nya berada di cdrom, maka kita perlu nge-moounting dulu cdromnya dengan cara:

cari dulu nama device cdromnya dengan cara $dmesg, biasanya sih cd0a, kalau sudah ketemu kita bikin direktori buat si cdromnya misalnya mkdir /mnt/cdrom. Nas setelah itu baru deh kita ketik $mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /mnt/cdrom

setelah itu masuk deh kefolder packagenya si openBSD ini misalanya

cd /mnt/cdrom/packages/i386/

dan setelah masuk direktori tadi kita tinggal install aplikasinya.

pertama kita install dulu mysqlnya dengan cara:

pkg_add -v mysql-server-5.0.22.tgz

seteas instalasi mysql selesai kita biarkan saja dulu, selanjutnya install phpnya dengan cara:

pkg_add -v php5-core-5.1.4p1.tgz

untuk mengaktifkan php di webserver kita ketikan:

/usr/local/sbin/phpxs -s

lalu kopiin file php.ini dengan cara

cp /usr/local/share/examples/php5/php.ini-recommended /var/www/conf/php.ini

untuk melakukan test apakah instalasi php 5 sudah berhasil dengan cara

stop apache dengan apachectl stop

jalankan lagi apache dengan apachectl start

lalu bikin file phpinfo di /var/www/htdocs

dengan cara

vi test.php
phpinfo()
?>

lalu ESC:wq!

dan browse dengan lynx http://localhost/test.php

apabila nampil konfigurasi php.ini makainstalasi php behasil.

setelah itu kita bisa lakukan instasi beberapa extension php yang bisa diliha dengan cara :

ls /mnt/cdrom/packages/i386/ | grep php5

Untuk menghubungkan database mysql server agar bisa diakses oleh php maka kita harus menambahkan extensionnya dengan cara :

pkg_add -v php5-mysql-5.1.4.tgz

setelah selesai lalu jalankan /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -a mysql

dan untuk extension-extension linnya silakan install sendiri yah kalo bingung tingga nyari ajah lewat google

Nah sekarang baru kembali lagi si jang mysqlnya kita, kita jalanin si mysqlnya dengan cara

su -c _mysql root -c '/usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe &' > /dev/null &

selesai deh standar instalasi aplikasi untuk membangun sebuah webserver

untuk menjalankan apache dan mysql secara otomati ketika server baru dinyalakan, tinggal sedikid di update:

vi /etc/rc.local

dan tambahin barisa katan-kata berikut :

if [ -x /usr/sbin/apachectl ]; then
/usr/sbin/apachectl start
fi

su -c _mysql root -c '/usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe &' > /dev/null &
sleep 5
rm -f /var/www/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock
ln /var/run/mysql/mysql.sock /var/www/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock
oh iyah lupa sebelumnya kita bikin folder dulu

mkdir /var/www/var
mkdir /var/www/var/run
mkdir /var/www/var/run/mysql
mkdir /var/www/tmp
chmod a+w /var/www/tmp
chmod u+t /var/www/tmp

lalu reboot deh…

ehh waiit waittt….

kalo mau nambahin phpMyAdmin kita tinggal install aja

pkg_add -v phpMyAdmin-2.8.1.tgz

source :

http://www.corebsd.or.id/

http://www.devx.com/security/Article/28059/

http://www.openbsdsupport.org/mysql.htm

http://www.lp3i.net/

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Installasi Web Server(Apache,PHPMyAdmin dan MySQL) di Linux.

Barusan ada yang PM tanya2 soal web server, kebetulan dia Linuxer.. yaw da.. lets begin..

Bagi rekan-rekan yang baru saja melakukan migrasi System Operasi dari Ms. Windows ke Linux dan ingin mengetahui cara menginstall Apache, PHPMyAdmin dan MySQL di Linux tanpa perlu repot2 download sana-sini di internet. Cukup dengan memanfaatkan CD Linux yang kita sudah beli mahal2 maka bisa kita dapatkan hasilnya. itu sangatlah mudah dan Begini Caranya :

Langkah 2x :
1. Install Apache2 dan Kawan-kawannya Contoh : apache2,apache2-doc,apache2-modperl,apache2- modphp5,apache2-prefork, dll yang dibutuhkan) Melalui YAST.

2. Install MySQL dan Kawan-kawannya(Contoh : MySQL,MySQL- client,MySQL-devel, ySQL-shared,perl-DBD-mysql,perl- DBI, php5-mysql, php5-mysqli, dll yang dibutuhkan) Melalui YAST.

3. Konfigurasi YAST :
* Untuk Komputer Jaringan :
o Konfigurasi Network Card Melalui YAST Jika terhubung Ke Jaringan.
o Konfigurasi NTP client Melalui YAST Jika Terhubung Ke jaringan atau dengan mengedit ntp.conf, pastikan Address yang dituju adalah IP Komputer yang Database MySQL-nya ingin di gunakan. Contoh : Jika Database MySQL yang dituju ada di komputer dengan IP 192.168.0.1, maka pastikan IP tersebut yang terkonfigurasi pada NTP client.
* Untuk komputer yang tidak terhubung dengan jaringan tidak perlu melakukan Konfigurasi YAST.

4. Jika Firewall pada komputer anda Aktif, pastikan port 80 dapat diakses oleh komputer lain yang terhubung dengan jaringan. Jika tidak terhubung ke jaringan Stop aja Firewallnya Melalui YAST.

5. Aktifkan Apache yang telah di install dengan cara mengetikkan pada Console(untuk Distro SUSE bisa lihat pada /usr/share/doc/packages/apache2/README.QUICKSTART)
* rcapache2 start
* chkconfig -a apache2

6. Aktifkan MySQL yang telah diinstall dengan cara mengetikkan pada Console(Untuk Distro SUSE bisa lihat pada /usr/share/doc/packages/mysql/README.SuSE).
* rcmysql start -> untuk mengaktifkan Manual
* /sbin/insserv /etc/init.d/mysql -> untuk mengaktifkan saat startup

7. Install phpmyadmin(Tanya aja sama Om Google), Untuk Pengguna Ms. Windows yang sudah pernah menginstall PHPTriad di Ms. Windows, Kopikan saja Folder "phpmyadmin" di Folder "C:\apache\htdocs\" pada Ms. Windows ke dalam /srv/www/htdocs/ yang ada pada Linux. "/srv/www/htdocs/" ini adalah folder default dimana localhost membaca Aplikasi Web yang akan dijalankan.

8. Sekarang kita bisa jalankan Localhost melalui Web Browser dan mengetikkan pada Address Bar "http://localhost/manual/" -> anda bisa membaca tentang Infomasi Apache disini. Jika Ini Berhasil berarti apache telah berhasil anda konfigurasi.

9. Sekarang kita juga sudah bisa menjalankan MySQL kita dengan bantuan phpmyadmin melalui melalui Web Browser dan mengetikkan pada Address Bar "http://localhost/phpmyadmin/". Jika Ini berhasil juga, selamat kepada anda telah memiliki Web Server di komputer anda dan mengkonfigurasi dengan benar.

10. Get More Experiences with Linux (OPEN SOURCE), Smile...!! :).

Ket : data MySQL terdapat pada Folder "/var/lib/mysql/"


by : Rifa Hammet. (Destroyer_Maniac)

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Indonesia - have u Visit This Country

Hope Indonesia More Popular And A lot Of People Have Desire to Visit This Country after People Read this … ^_^

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a nation in Southeast Asia. Comprising 17,508 islands, it is the world's largest archipelagic state. With a population of over 234 million people, it is the world's fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority nation, although officially it is not an Islamic state. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected parliament and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the seventh century, when the Srivijaya Kingdom formed trade links with China. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Under Indian influence, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished from the early centuries CE. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Exploration. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the politically dominant and largest ethnic group. As a unitary state and a nation, Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka tunggal ika" ("Unity in Diversity" lit. "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. However, sectarian tensions and separatism have led to violent confrontations that have undermined political and economic stability. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty is a defining feature of contemporary Indonesia.

Etymology

The name Indonesia derives from the Latin Indus, meaning "India", and the Greek nesos, meaning "island". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia.

Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East IndiesNederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and even Insulinde. (From 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayichen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913.

History

As early as the first century CE Indonesian vessels made trade voyages as far as Africa. Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur, circa 800 CE.

Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they expanded. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade. For example, trade links with both Indian kingdoms and China were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.

The nutmeg plant is native to Indonesia's Banda Islands. Once one of the world's most valuable commodities, it drew the first European colonial powers to Indonesia.

From the seventh century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Between the eighth and 10th centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia; this period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.

Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.Other Indonesia areas gradually adopted Islam, making it the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.The first Europeans arrived in Indonesia in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony.

For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over these territories was tenuous; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during WWII ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement.


Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence.

Sukarno, Indonesia's founding president

Sukarno moved from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military, Islam, and communism. However, rising tensions between the military and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) culminated in an attempted coup on 30 September 1965, during which six top-ranking generals were murdered under mysterious circumstances. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered with a violent anti-communist purge, by which the PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.Between 500,000 and one million people were killed. Politically, Suharto capitalized on Sukarno's gravely weakened position; following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was formally appointed president in March 1968.

Suharto's "New Order" administration encouraged foreign investment in Indonesia, which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth.

In 1997 and 1998, however, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian Financial Crisis. This increased popular discontent with the New Order and led to popular protests. Suharto resigned on 21 May 1998. In 1999, East Timor voted to secede from Indonesia, after a twenty-five-year occupation, which was marked by international condemnation of repression and human rights abuses. The Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas. A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005.

Government and politics

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the national government. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president. The president serves a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.

A session of the People's Representative Council in Jakarta

The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president. The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (DPR), with 550 members, and the Regional Representatives Council (DPD), with 168 members. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR's role in national governance. The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Most civil disputes appear before a State Court; appeals are heard before the High Court.

The Supreme Court is the country's highest court, and hears final cassation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court to deal with specific religious cases.

Foreign relations and military

In contrast to Sukarno's antipathy to western powers and hostility to Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations approach since the Suharto "New Order" has been one of international cooperation and accommodation, to gain external support for Indonesia's political stability and economic development. Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit. The nation restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, and a member of OPEC, the Cairns Group and the WTO. Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.

National flags at the site of the 2002 terrorist bombing in Kuta, Bali

The Indonesian Government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda. The most deadly attack killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002. The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, have severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.

Indonesia's 300,000-member armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, which includes marines), and Air Force (TNI-AU). The army has about 233,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations. In the post-Suharto period since 1998, formal TNI representation in parliament has been removed; though curtailed, its political influence remains extensive. Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.

Following a sporadic thirty year guerrilla war between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005. In Papua, there has been a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses, since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

Administrative divisions

Provinces of Indonesia

Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, four of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and (kota), which are further subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan), and again into village groupings (either desa or kelurahan). Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).

Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, and Papua provinces have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law). Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution. Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001. Jakarta is the country's special capital region.

Geography

Map of Indonesia

Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the island of Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia also shares borders with Singapore, Malaysia, and the Phillipines to the north and Australia to the south across narrow straits of water. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.

At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest country in terms of land area. Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world, although Java, the world's most populous island, has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 meters (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.

Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.

Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates, makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe.

Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra, and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.

Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimeters (70–125 in), and up to 6,100 millimeters (240 in) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas—particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua—receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30 °C (79–86 °F).

Ecology

The critically endangered Sumatran Orangutan, a great ape endemic to Indonesia

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil), and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. Once linked to the Asian mainland, the islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Borneo, and Bali) have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically.

Forests cover approximately 60% of the country. In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku—having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.

Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 mi) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.

The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace, described a dividing line between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species. Known as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north-south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. West of the line the flora and fauna are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the surrounding area, which is now termed Wallacea.

Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues, which are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.

Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services. Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan.

Economy

Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java. Agriculture has been the country's largest employer for centuries.

Indonesia's estimated Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2007 is US$408 billion (US$1,038 bn PPP). In 2007, estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$1,812, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,616 (International Dollars). The services sector is the economy's largest and accounts for 45.3% of GDP (2005). This is followed by industry (40.7%) and agriculture (14.0%). However, agriculture employs more people than other sectors, accounting for 44.3% of the 95 million-strong workforce. This is followed by the services sector (36.9%) and industry (18.8%). Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining. Major agricultural products include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.

Indonesia's main export markets are Japan (22.3% of Indonesian exports in 2005), the United States (13.9%), China (9.1%), and Singapore (8.9%). The major suppliers of imports to IndonesiaJapan (18.0%), China (16.1%), and Singapore (12.8%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs. are

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and its largest commercial center

In the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and ill-disciplined economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger. Following President Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilized the currency, managed foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment. Indonesia is Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates. Following further reforms in the late 1980s, foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-orientated manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%.

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. Against the US dollar, the currency dropped from about Rp. 2,000 to Rp. 18,000, and the economy shrunk by 13.7%. The rupiah has since stabilized at around Rp. 10,000, and there has been a slow but significant economic recovery. Political instability since 1998, slow economic reform, and corruption at all levels of government and business, have contributed to the patchy nature of the recovery. (Transparency International, for example, ranked Indonesia 130th out of 163 countries in its 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index). GDP growth, however, exceeded 5% in both 2004 and 2005, and is forecasted to increase. This growth rate, however, is not enough to make a significant impact on unemployment, and stagnant wages growth, and increases in fuel and rice prices have worsened poverty levels. As of 2006, an estimated 17.8% of the population live below the poverty line, and 49.0% of the population live on less than US$2 per day.

Demographics

The national population from the 2000 national census is 206 million, and the Indonesian Central Statistics Bureau and Statistics Indonesia estimate a population of 222 million for 2006. 130 million people live on the island of Java, the world's most populous island. Despite a fairly effective family planning program, which has been in place since the 1960s, the population is expected to grow to around 315 million in 2035, based on the current estimated annual growth rate of 1.25%.

A Minangkabau woman in traditional dress

Most Indonesians are descendant from Austronesian-speaking peoples, who originated from Taiwan. The other major grouping are Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia. There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects. The largest is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strongly maintained regional identities. Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence. Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising less than 2% of the population. Much of the country's privately-owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-controlled, which has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence.

The official national language, Indonesian, is universally taught in schools, and is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was originally a lingua franca for most of the region, including present-day Malaysia, and is thus closely related to Malay. Indonesian was first promoted by nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language on independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages (bahasa daerah), often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely-spoken, the language of the largest ethnic group. On the other hand, Papua has 500 or more

indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages, in a region of just 2.7 million people.

Medan's Masjid Raya ('Great Mosque'). Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population.

Although religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution, the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Hinduism; Buddhism; and Confucianism. Although it is not an Islamic state, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, with almost 86% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census. 11% of the population is Christian, 2% are Hindu, and 1% Buddhist. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese. Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the country's dominant religion by the 16th century.

Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries, and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period. A large proportion of Indonesians—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs.

Culture

A Wayang kulit shadow puppet performance as seen by the audience

Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant. The most popular sports in Indonesia are badminton and football; Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as, caci in Flores, and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art. Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.

A selection of Indonesian food, including Soto Ayam (chicken noodle soup), sate kerangtelor pindang (preserved eggs), perkedel (fritter), and es teh manis (iced tea) (shellfish kebabs),

Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. Dangdut is a popular contemporary genre of pop music that draws influence from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music. The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, although it declined significantly in the early 1990s. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased.

The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century CE. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians; and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly-rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media. The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 18 million users in 2005, Internet usage is limited to a minority of the population.

U Want For Visit Indonesia?Contact This..

Indonesian Culture And Tourism Departement Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat 17 Jakarta 10110
Telp: 021-384-9142 / Fax: 021-387-7600 / Email:
pusdatin@budpar.go.id / Website: www.budpar.go.id

Source : http://Wikipedia.org/, http://www.indonesia.go.id/, http://www.budpar.go.id/

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Monday, August 20, 2007

OBON merayakan kedatangan Arwah!?

ASAL USUL

Obon merupakan bentuk singkat dari istilah agama Buddha Urabon (盂蘭, Urabon) yang hanya diambil aksara Kanji terakhirnya saja (, bon, nampan) ditambah awalan honorifik huruf "O." Pada mulanya, Obon berarti meletakkan nampan berisi barang-barang persembahan untuk para arwah. Selanjutnya, Obon berkembang menjadi istilah bagi arwah orang meninggal (shōrō) yang diupacarakan dan dimanjakan dengan berbagai barang persembahan. Di daerah tertentu, Bonsama atau Oshorosama adalah sebutan untuk arwah orang meninggal yang datang semasa perayaan Obon.

Asal-usul tradisi Obon tidak diketahui secara pasti. Tradisi memperingati arwah leluhur di musim panas konon sudah ada di Jepang sejak sekitar abad ke-8.

Sejak dulu di Jepang sudah ada tradisi menyambut kedatangan arwah leluhur yang dipercaya datang mengunjungi anak cucu sebanyak 2 kali setahun sewaktu bulan purnama di permulaan musim semi dan awal musim gugur. Penjelasan lain mengatakan tradisi mengenang orang yang meninggal dilakukan 2 kali, karena awal sampai pertengahan tahun dihitung sebagai satu tahun dan pertengahan tahun sampai akhir tahun juga dihitung sebagai satu tahun.

Di awal musim semi, arwah leluhur datang dalam bentuk Toshigami (salah satu Kami dalam kepercayaan Shinto) dan dirayakan sebagai Tahun Baru Jepang. Di awal musim gugur, arwah leluhur juga datang dan perayaannya secara agama Buddha merupakan sinkretisme dengan Urabon.

Jepang mulai menggunakan kalender Gregorian sejak tanggal 1 Januari 1873, sehingga perayaan Obon di berbagai daerah di Jepang bisa dilangsungkan pada tanggal:

1. bulan ke-7 hari ke-15 menurut kalender Tempō

2. 15 Juli menurut kalender Gregorian

3. 15 Agustus menurut kalender Gregorian mengikuti perhitungan Tsukiokure (tanggal pada kalender Gregorian selalu lebih lambat 1 bulan dari kalender Tempō).

Pada tanggal 13 Juli 1873 pemerintah daerah Prefektur Yamanashi dan Prefektur Niigata sudah menyarankan agar orang tidak lagi merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Juli menurut kalender Tempō

Sekarang ini, orang Jepang yang merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Juli menurut kalender Tempō semakin sedikit. Pada saat ini, orang Jepang umumnya merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Agustus menurut kalender Gregorian.

Orang yang tinggal di daerah Kanto secara turun temurun merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Juli kalender Gregorian, termasuk mengunjungi makam pada sebelum tanggal 15 Juli. Pengikut salah satu kuil di Tokyo selalu ingin merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Juli sehingga Obon jatuh pada tanggal 15 Juli, sedangkan pengikut kuil di Prefektur Kanagawa selalu ingin merayakan Obon tanggal 15 Agustus sehingga Obon jatuh pada tanggal 15 Agustus.

Media massa memberitakan perayaan Obon pada tanggal 15 Agustus sehingga orang di seluruh Jepang menjadi ikut-ikutan merayakan Obon pada tanggal 15 Agustus.

Obon pada akhirnya bukan lagi merupakan upacara keagamaan yang merayakan kedatangan arwah leluhur melainkan hari libur musim panas yang dinanti-nanti banyak orang di Jepang. Sekarang Obon lebih banyak diartikan sebagai kesempatan pulang ke kampung halaman untuk bertemu sanak saudara dan membersihkan makam. Obon sama artinya dengan liburan musim panas bagi orang Jepang yang tidak mengerti tradisi agama Buddha.

Ada kemungkinan perayaan Obon mendapat pengaruh dari orang yang mengartikan peristiwa bintang jatuh (hujan meteor) sebagai kedatangan arwah leluhur. Di dalam beberapa kebudayaan, arwah orang yang sudah meninggal sering diumpamakan berubah menjadi bintang, sedangkan peristiwa bintang jatuh paling banyak terjadi bertepatan dengan hujan meteor Perseid tahunan yang mencapai puncaknya beberapa hari sebelum tanggal 15 Agustus.

Tanggal 15 Agustus bagi agama Katolik merupakan hari raya Santa Perawan Maria diangkat ke surga yang banyak dirayakan di Eropa Selatan, Amerika Tengah dan Amerika Selatan. Perayaan Obon pada tanggal 15 Agustus juga bertepatan dengan hari peringatan berakhirnya perang (Shūsen kinenbi) yang di luar Jepang dikenal sebagai V-J Day (Victory over Japan Day).

Tradisi yang umum

Tradisi dalam merayakan Obon berbeda-beda tergantung pada daerahnya, tapi ada beberapa tradisi yang umumnya dilakukan orang di seluruh Jepang.

Urut-urutan ritual

Orang Jepang percaya arwah orang yang meninggal pulang untuk merayakan Obon ke rumah yang pernah ditinggalinya. Pada tanggal 13 Agustus, anak cucu yang mengharapkan kedatangan leluhur membuat api kecil di luar rumah yang disebut Mukaebi untuk menerangi jalan pulang bagi arwah leluhur. Pada masa lokasi makam masih berdekatan dengan lokasi permukiman, orang zaman dulu sering harus pergi sampai ke makam untuk menyambut kedatangan arwah leluhur.

Setelah arwah leluhur sampai di rumah yang dulu pernah ditinggalinya, pendeta agama Buddha dipanggil untuk membacakan sutra bagi arwah leluhur yang baru saja datang. Sutra yang dibacakan oleh pendeta Buddha sewaktu Obon disebut Tanagyō karena dibacakan di depan altar berisi barang persembahan yang disebut shōrōdana (shōryōdana) atau tana.

Pada tanggal 16 Agustus, arwah leluhur pulang ke alam sana dengan diterangi dengan api yang disebut Okuribi.

Bon Odori

Acara menari bersama yang disebut Bon Odori (盆踊り, Bon Odori tari Obon) dilangsungkan sebagai penutup perayaan Obon. Pada umumnya, Bon Odori ditarikan bersama-sama tanpa mengenal jenis kelamin dan usia di lingkungan kuil agama Buddha atau Shinto. Konon gerakan dalam Bon Odori meniru arwah leluhur yang menari gembira setelah lepas dari hukuman kejam di neraka.

Bon Odori merupakan puncak dari semua festival musim panas (matsuri) yang diadakan di Jepang. Pelaksanaan Bon Odori memilih saat terang bulan yang kebetulan terjadi pada tanggal 15 Juli atau 16 Juli menurut kalender Tempō. Bon Odori diselenggarakan pada tanggal 16 Juli karena pada malam itu bulan sedang terang-terangnya dan orang bisa menari sampai larut malam.

Belakangan ini, Bon Odori tidak hanya diselenggarakan di lingkungan kuil saja dan penyelenggaranya sering tidak ada hubungan sama sekali dengan organisasi keagamaan. Bon Odori sering dilangsungkan di tanah lapang, di depan stasiun kereta api atau di ruang-ruang terbuka tempat orang banyak berkumpul.

Di tengah-tengah ruang terbuka, penyelenggara mendirikan panggung yang disebut Yagura untuk penyanyi dan pemain musik yang mengiringi Bon Odori. Penyelenggara juga sering mengundang pasar kaget untuk menciptakan keramaian agar penduduk yang tinggal di sekitarnya mau datang. Bon Odori juga sering digunakan sebagai sarana reuni dengan orang-orang sekampung halaman yang pergi merantau dan pulang ke kampung untuk merayakan Obon.

Belakangan ini, jam pelaksanaan Bon Odori di beberapa tempat yang berdekatan sering diatur agar tidak bentrok dan perebutan pengunjung bisa dihindari. Penyelenggara Bon Odori di kota-kota sering mendapat kesulitan mendapat pengunjung karena penduduk yang tinggal di sekitarnya banyak yang sedang pulang kampung. Ada juga penyelenggara yang sama sekali tidak menyebut acaranya sebagai Bon Odori agar tidak dikait-kaitkan dengan acara keagamaan.

Hatsu-obon dan Niibon

Hatsu-obon atau Niibon adalah sebutan untuk perayaan Obon yang baru pertama kali dialami oleh arwah orang meninggal yang baru saja peringatan 49 harinya selesai diupacarakan. Perlakuan khusus diberikan untuk arwah yang baru pertama kali merayakan Obon dalam bentuk pembacaan doa yang lebih banyak.

Tradisi Hatsu-obon berbeda-beda tergantung pada daerahnya. Di daerah tertentu, orang yang tinggal di rumah yang baru saja mengalami kematian biasanya memasang lampion berwarna putih di depan pintu masuk rumah dan di makam.

Tradisi di berbagai daerah

Ada berbagai tradisi unik di berbagai tempat di Jepang sehubungan dengan perayaan Obon.

  • Kendaraan dari terong dan ketimun

Di daerah tertentu ada tradisi membuat kendaraan semacam kuda-kudaan yang disebut Shōryō-uma dari terong dan ketimun. Empat batang korek api atau potongan sumpit sekali pakai (waribashi) ditusukkan pada terong dan ketimun sebagai kaki. Terong berkaki menjadi "sapi" sedangkan ketimun menjadi "kuda" yang kedua-duanya dinaiki arwah leluhur sewaktu datang dan pulang. Kuda dari ketimun bisa lari cepat sehingga arwah leluhur bisa cepat sampai turun ke bumi, sedangkan sapi dari terong hanya bisa berjalan pelan dengan maksud agar arwah leluhur kalau bisa tidak usah cepat-cepat pulang.

  • Mendoakan setan lapar

Di beberapa daerah dilangsungkan upacara Segaki di kuil agama Buddha untuk menolong Gaki (setan kelaparan) dengan mendirikan pendirian altar yang disebut Gakidana dan mendoakan arwah orang yang meninggal di pinggir jalan.

  • Lampion Obon

Ada daerah yang mempunyai tradisi memajang lampion perayaan Obon yang disebut Bon Chochin dengan maksud agar arwah leluhur bisa menemukan rumah yang dulu pernah ditinggalinya. Bon Chochin terbuat dari washi dengan kaki penyangga dari kayu.

  • Melarung lampion

Beberapa daerah memiliki tradisi Tōrōnagashi berupa pelarungan lampion dari washi di sungai sebagai lambang melepas arwah leluhur untuk kembali ke alam sana. Ada daerah yang mempunyai tradisi Shōrōnagashi yang menggunakan kapal kecil untuk memuat lampion sebelum dilarung di sungai.

Liburan Obon

Liburan tidak resmi di Jepang sebelum dan sesudah hari raya Obon disebut liburan Obon (Obonyasumi) yang lamanya tergantung pada keputusan masing-masing perusahaan. Kantor-kantor dan pemilik usaha biasanya meliburkan karyawannya sebelum dan sesudah tanggal 15 Agustus selama 3 sampai 5 hari.

Acara Obon di berbagai daerah

Daerah Tohoku

  • Prefektur Iwate

Funekko Nagashi (kota Morioka dan kota Tōno)

  • Prefektur Akita

Tiga Bon Odori terbesar:

Kemanai Bon Odori di kota Kazuno (21-23 Agustus)

Hitoichi Bon Odori di kota Hachirōgata (18-20 Agustus)

Nishimonai Bon Odori di kota Ugo (16-18 Agustus)

  • Prefektur Fukushima

Bon Odori yang diselenggarakan di kota Miharu memiliki panggung (yagura) untuk penyanyi dan pemusik yang unik.

Daerah Kanto

  • Prefektur Tochigi

Hyakuhatō Nagashi di kota Tochigi

  • Tokyo

Tsukuda no Bon Odori

Daerah Tokai

  • Prefektur Gifu

Gujō Odori di kota Gujō

Daerah Kansai

  • Prefektur Kyoto

Gozan no Okuribi di kota Kyoto

  • Prefektur Nara

Nara Daimonji Okuribi di kota Nara

Daerah Chugoku

  • Prefektur Hiroshima

Lampion Bontōrō di daerah Aki

Daerah Shikoku

  • Prefektur Tokushima

Awa Odori di kota Tokushima

Daerah Kyushu

  • Prefektur Nagasaki

Chankoko Odori di kota Gotō

Shōrōnagashi di beberapa tempat

Kembang api yang dinyalakan sejak siang hari di makam

  • Prefektur Okinawa

Eisa di berbagai tempat

Angama di kota Ishigaki

Di luar Jepang

Bon Odori sebagai pengenalan terhadap kebudayaan Jepang juga diselenggarakan di Jakarta. Di Penang dan Shah Alam, Bon Odori sudah merupakan acara tahunan untuk memperkenalkan makanan dan minuman khas Jepang.

Orang Jepang yang tinggal di Los Angeles dan Honolulu juga merayakan Obon dengan menarikan Bon Odori.



source : wiki.id

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